Kompozit Terimleri/ Composite Terms

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    material that absorbs heat through decomposition process called pyrolysis at or near the exposed surface


    accelerates cure of a resin


    the term used for a large number of specialist chemicals which are added to resins/compounds to impart specific properties, for example, flame retardancy, and UV resistance


    substance applied to mating surfaces to bond them together by surface attachment. An adhesive can be in liquid, film or paste form.


    high-strength, high-stiffness aromatic polyamide fibres

    Aspect ratio:

    the length/diameter ratio of a fibre


    Blister, blistering:

    undesirable raised areas in a moulded part caused by local internal pressure, due usually to rapped air, volatile reaction by-products or water entering by osmosis.

    Bulk Moulding Compound (BMC):

    polyester resin/glass fibre premix, for injection or transfer moulding, also known as dough moulding compound (DMC)


    Carbon fibre:

    reinforcing fibre known for its light weight, high strength and high stiffness.

    Catalyst (also called hardener):

    a chemical compound (usually an organic peroxide) which initiates polymerisation of a resin

    Chlorinated paraffins:

    flame-retardant additives for polyester resins

    Chopped strands:

    short strands cut from continuous filament strands of reinforcing fibre, not held together by any means

    Coefficient of thermal expansion:

    a material’s fractional change in length corresponding to for a given unit change in temperature

    Composite: a material made up of resin and reinforcement (usually fibre)

    Compression strength:

    the crushing load at failure of a material, divided by cross-sectional area of the specimen

    Contact moulding:

    moulding of fibre-reinforced resins without application of external pressure


    in sandwich construction, the central component to which inner and outer skins are attached. Foam, honeycomb and wood are all commonly used core materials.

    Corrosion resistance:

    the ability of a material to withstand contact with ambient natural factors without degradation or change in properties. For composites, corrosion can cause crazing.

    Coupling agent:

    a substance, which promotes or establishes a stronger bond at the resin matrix/reinforcement interface


    actual separation of moulded material, visible on opposite surfaces of a part ad extending through the thickness (fracture)


    fine cracks, which may extend in a network on or under the surface of a moulded part


    the process of hardening of a thermosetting resin (by cross-linking of the molecular structure), under the influence of heat

    Curing agents:

    chemical compounds used to cure thermosetting resins

    Curing time:

    the time taken for a resin to cure to its full extent



    splitting, physical separation or loss of bond along the plane of layers of a laminated material

    Direct roving:

    roving produced by winding a large and determined number of filaments direct from a bushing

    Dough moulding compound (DMC):

    polyester/resin fibre premix, for injection or transfer moulding, also known as bulk moulding compound (BMC)



    a unit of matter of relatively short length, characterised by a high ratio of length to thickness or diameter


    a single textile element of small diameter and very long length considered as continuous


    material (usually low cost) added to a resin to extend it, or give special properties


    application of coupling agent to textile reinforcements to improve the fibre/resin bond

    Flexural strength:

    the strength of a material in bending expressed as the stress if a bent test sample at the instant of failure.


    the movement of a resinous material, thermosetting or thermoplastic, under pressure, to fill all parts of a closed mould


    cracks, crazing or delamination resulting from physical damage.



    the opening through which a moulding compound is injected into a closed mould; the size, geometry and positioning of the gate can strongly influence properties of the finished moulding


    the state of a resin, which has set to a jelly-like consistency


    a thin layer of unreinforced resin on the outer surface of a reinforced resin moulding; it hides the fibre pattern of the reinforcement, protects the resin/reinforcement bond, gives smooth external finish and can also provide special properties; it is usually pigmented

    Glass fibre:

    reinforcing fibre made by drawing molten glass through bushings. The predominant reinforcement for polymer composites, it is known for its good strength, processability and low cost.



    see catalyst

    HET acid anhydride:

    saturated dicarboxylic acid anhydride, containing chlorine


    light weight cellular structure made from either metallic sheet materials or non-metallic materials and formed into hexagonal nested cells, similar in appearance to the cross-section of a beehive


    a resin or reinforcement made from two or more different polymers or reinforcement materials


    Impact strength:

    a material’s ability to withstand shock loading as measured by fracturing a specimen


    saturation of reinforcement with liquid resin

    In-mould coating (IMC):

    a process used with SMC (and recently developed also for thermoplastics) in which a liquid/melt coating layer is applied to the exterior of a moulding while still in the mould, as part of the moulding cycle


    the contact area between reinforcement and resin



    the structure resulting from bonding multiple plies of reinforcing fibre or fabric


    a resin-impregnated reinforcement in the mould, prior to polymerisation



    a widely used sheet-type reinforcement made up of filaments, staple fibres or strands, cut or uncut, oriented or random, lightly bonded together


    a compound containing a reactive double bond, capable of polymerising



    usual term for an unsaturated polyester resin


    a long-chain molecule, consisting of many repeat units


    numerous air pockets or voids in a moulded product


    application of external heat to bring a resin to a stable state of cure in the shortest possible time


    reinforcement pre-shaped to the general geometry of the intended moulded part; it is used on more complex and deep-draw mouldings, to optimise distribution and orientation of fibres


    a moulding compound prepared prior to, and apart from, the moulding operation, containing all components necessary for moulding


    a factory-made combination of reactive resins and reinforcing fibres, plus other necessary additive chemicals, ready to be moulded


    Reactive resins:

    liquid resins which can be cured by catalysts and hardeners to form solid materials

    Release agent:

    a substance which prevents a moulding from sticking to the mould surface; it may be a chemical compound or a solid material such as a cellulose or plastics film


    key element added to resin (matrix) to provide the required properties; ranges from short fibres and continuous fibres through complex textile forms


    polymer with indefinite and often high molecular weight and a softening or melting range that exhibits a tendency to flow when subjected to stress. As composite matrices, resins bind together reinforcement fibres

    Resin transfer moulding (RTM):

    a moulding process in which catalysed resin is injected into a closed mould already containing the pre-formed reinforcement


    endless glass fibre bundles; a collection of parallel strands (assembled roving) or parallel filaments (direct roving) assembled without intentional twist


    Sandwich structure:

    composite composed of lightweight core material to which two relatively thin, dense, high strength, functional or decorative skins are adhered

    Sheet moulding compound (SMC):

    a flat pre-preg material, comprising thickened resin, glass fibre and fillers, covered on both sides with polyethylene or nylon film, ready for press-moulding


    a coating applied to glass fibres or filaments during manufacture, to improve handling and protect from abrasion


    an assembly of parallel filaments simultaneously produced and lightly bonded



    a plastic, which softens each time it is heated


    a plastic which flows and then sets permanently on first heating, as s result of setting up a three-dimensional cross-linked molecular structure, and subsequently will not soften or dissolve

    Thick moulding compound (TMC):

    a compound similar to BMC, but continuously produced in sheet form with a thickness of 25mm or more


    a pocket of gas or air trapped in a laminate or moulding


    complete wetting/saturation of a fibrous surface with a liquid resin



    advanced composite material

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