Kompozit Terimleri/ Composite Terms

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    A

    Ablative:

    material that absorbs heat through decomposition process called pyrolysis at or near the exposed surface

    Accelerator:

    accelerates cure of a resin

    Additives:

    the term used for a large number of specialist chemicals which are added to resins/compounds to impart specific properties, for example, flame retardancy, and UV resistance

    Adhesive:

    substance applied to mating surfaces to bond them together by surface attachment. An adhesive can be in liquid, film or paste form.

    Aramid:

    high-strength, high-stiffness aromatic polyamide fibres

    Aspect ratio:

    the length/diameter ratio of a fibre

    B

    Blister, blistering:

    undesirable raised areas in a moulded part caused by local internal pressure, due usually to rapped air, volatile reaction by-products or water entering by osmosis.

    Bulk Moulding Compound (BMC):

    polyester resin/glass fibre premix, for injection or transfer moulding, also known as dough moulding compound (DMC)

    C

    Carbon fibre:

    reinforcing fibre known for its light weight, high strength and high stiffness.

    Catalyst (also called hardener):

    a chemical compound (usually an organic peroxide) which initiates polymerisation of a resin

    Chlorinated paraffins:

    flame-retardant additives for polyester resins

    Chopped strands:

    short strands cut from continuous filament strands of reinforcing fibre, not held together by any means

    Coefficient of thermal expansion:

    a material’s fractional change in length corresponding to for a given unit change in temperature

    Composite: a material made up of resin and reinforcement (usually fibre)

    Compression strength:

    the crushing load at failure of a material, divided by cross-sectional area of the specimen

    Contact moulding:

    moulding of fibre-reinforced resins without application of external pressure

    Core:

    in sandwich construction, the central component to which inner and outer skins are attached. Foam, honeycomb and wood are all commonly used core materials.

    Corrosion resistance:

    the ability of a material to withstand contact with ambient natural factors without degradation or change in properties. For composites, corrosion can cause crazing.

    Coupling agent:

    a substance, which promotes or establishes a stronger bond at the resin matrix/reinforcement interface

    Cracking:

    actual separation of moulded material, visible on opposite surfaces of a part ad extending through the thickness (fracture)


    Crazing:

    fine cracks, which may extend in a network on or under the surface of a moulded part

    Cure:

    the process of hardening of a thermosetting resin (by cross-linking of the molecular structure), under the influence of heat

    Curing agents:

    chemical compounds used to cure thermosetting resins

    Curing time:

    the time taken for a resin to cure to its full extent

    D

    Delamination:

    splitting, physical separation or loss of bond along the plane of layers of a laminated material

    Direct roving:

    roving produced by winding a large and determined number of filaments direct from a bushing

    Dough moulding compound (DMC):

    polyester/resin fibre premix, for injection or transfer moulding, also known as bulk moulding compound (BMC)

    F

    Fibre:

    a unit of matter of relatively short length, characterised by a high ratio of length to thickness or diameter

    Filament:

    a single textile element of small diameter and very long length considered as continuous

    Filler:

    material (usually low cost) added to a resin to extend it, or give special properties

    Finishing:

    application of coupling agent to textile reinforcements to improve the fibre/resin bond

    Flexural strength:

    the strength of a material in bending expressed as the stress if a bent test sample at the instant of failure.

    Flow:

    the movement of a resinous material, thermosetting or thermoplastic, under pressure, to fill all parts of a closed mould

    Fracture:

    cracks, crazing or delamination resulting from physical damage.

    G

    Gate:

    the opening through which a moulding compound is injected into a closed mould; the size, geometry and positioning of the gate can strongly influence properties of the finished moulding

    Gel:

    the state of a resin, which has set to a jelly-like consistency

    Gelcoat:

    a thin layer of unreinforced resin on the outer surface of a reinforced resin moulding; it hides the fibre pattern of the reinforcement, protects the resin/reinforcement bond, gives smooth external finish and can also provide special properties; it is usually pigmented

    Glass fibre:

    reinforcing fibre made by drawing molten glass through bushings. The predominant reinforcement for polymer composites, it is known for its good strength, processability and low cost.

    H

    Hardener:

    see catalyst

    HET acid anhydride:

    saturated dicarboxylic acid anhydride, containing chlorine

    Honeycomb:

    light weight cellular structure made from either metallic sheet materials or non-metallic materials and formed into hexagonal nested cells, similar in appearance to the cross-section of a beehive

    Hybrid:

    a resin or reinforcement made from two or more different polymers or reinforcement materials

    I

    Impact strength:

    a material’s ability to withstand shock loading as measured by fracturing a specimen

    Impregnation:

    saturation of reinforcement with liquid resin

    In-mould coating (IMC):

    a process used with SMC (and recently developed also for thermoplastics) in which a liquid/melt coating layer is applied to the exterior of a moulding while still in the mould, as part of the moulding cycle

    Interface:

    the contact area between reinforcement and resin


    L

    Laminate:

    the structure resulting from bonding multiple plies of reinforcing fibre or fabric

    Lay-up:

    a resin-impregnated reinforcement in the mould, prior to polymerisation

    M

    Mat:

    a widely used sheet-type reinforcement made up of filaments, staple fibres or strands, cut or uncut, oriented or random, lightly bonded together

    Monomer:

    a compound containing a reactive double bond, capable of polymerising

    P

    Polyester:

    usual term for an unsaturated polyester resin

    Polymer:

    a long-chain molecule, consisting of many repeat units

    Porosity:

    numerous air pockets or voids in a moulded product

    Post-cure:

    application of external heat to bring a resin to a stable state of cure in the shortest possible time

    Preform:

    reinforcement pre-shaped to the general geometry of the intended moulded part; it is used on more complex and deep-draw mouldings, to optimise distribution and orientation of fibres

    Premix:

    a moulding compound prepared prior to, and apart from, the moulding operation, containing all components necessary for moulding

    Prepreg:

    a factory-made combination of reactive resins and reinforcing fibres, plus other necessary additive chemicals, ready to be moulded

    R

    Reactive resins:

    liquid resins which can be cured by catalysts and hardeners to form solid materials

    Release agent:

    a substance which prevents a moulding from sticking to the mould surface; it may be a chemical compound or a solid material such as a cellulose or plastics film

    Reinforcement:

    key element added to resin (matrix) to provide the required properties; ranges from short fibres and continuous fibres through complex textile forms

    Resin:

    polymer with indefinite and often high molecular weight and a softening or melting range that exhibits a tendency to flow when subjected to stress. As composite matrices, resins bind together reinforcement fibres

    Resin transfer moulding (RTM):

    a moulding process in which catalysed resin is injected into a closed mould already containing the pre-formed reinforcement

    Roving:

    endless glass fibre bundles; a collection of parallel strands (assembled roving) or parallel filaments (direct roving) assembled without intentional twist

    S

    Sandwich structure:

    composite composed of lightweight core material to which two relatively thin, dense, high strength, functional or decorative skins are adhered

    Sheet moulding compound (SMC):

    a flat pre-preg material, comprising thickened resin, glass fibre and fillers, covered on both sides with polyethylene or nylon film, ready for press-moulding

    Size:

    a coating applied to glass fibres or filaments during manufacture, to improve handling and protect from abrasion

    Strand:

    an assembly of parallel filaments simultaneously produced and lightly bonded

    T

    Thermoplastic:

    a plastic, which softens each time it is heated

    Thermoset:

    a plastic which flows and then sets permanently on first heating, as s result of setting up a three-dimensional cross-linked molecular structure, and subsequently will not soften or dissolve

    Thick moulding compound (TMC):

    a compound similar to BMC, but continuously produced in sheet form with a thickness of 25mm or more

    Void:

    a pocket of gas or air trapped in a laminate or moulding

    Wet-out:

    complete wetting/saturation of a fibrous surface with a liquid resin


    Abbreviations

    ACM:

    advanced composite material

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